In this chapter, you explored various aspects of audit project management and learned about different sampling techniques. You also explored different audit evidence collection techniques, reporting techniques, and practical aspects of CSA. The following are some of the important topics that were covered in this chapter: • The initial step in designing an audit plan is to determine the audit universe for the organization. The audit universe is the list of all the processes and systems under the scope of the audit. Once the audit universe is identified, a risk assessment is to be conducted to identify the critical processes and systems. • Statistical sampling is the preferred mode of sampling when the probability of error must be objectively quantified. • It is advisable to report the finding even if corrective action is taken by the auditee. For any action taken on the basis of audit observation, the audit report should identify the finding and describe the corrective action taken.  • The objective of CSA is to involve functional staff to monitor high-risk processes. CSA aims to educate line management in the area of control responsibility and monitoring. The replacement of audit functions is not the objective of CSA. In the next chapter, you will explore the enterprise governance of IT and related frameworks.